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The prevalence of schizophrenia, for example, is similar throughout the world(about 1 percent of the population), according to the InternationalPilot Study on Schizophrenia, which examined over 1,300 people in10 countries (World Health Organization [WHO],1973). International studies using similarly rigorous researchmethodology have extended the WHO's findings to two other disorders: Thelifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder (0.3-1.5%) and panic disorder (0.4-2.9%)were shown to be relatively consistent across parts of Asia, Europe, and NorthAmerica (Weissman et al., 1994, 1996, 1997,1998). The global consistency in symptoms and prevalence of thesedisorders, combined with results of family and molecular genetic studies,indicates that they have high heritability (genetic contribution to thevariation of a disease in a population) (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1998). In other words,it seems that culture and societal factors play a more sub-ordinate role incausation of these disorders.

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Family risk and protective factors for mental illness vary across ethnic groups.But research has not yet reached the point of identifying whether the variationacross ethnic groups is a result of that group's culture, its social class andrelationship to the broader society, or individual features of family members.

Stigma is widespread in the United States and other Western nations Bhugra, 1989; Brockington et al., 1993 and in Asian nations (Ng, 1997. In response to societal stigma,people with mental problems internalize public attitudes and become soembarrassed or ashamed that they often conceal symptoms and fail to seektreatment Sussman et al., 1987; Wahl, 1999. Stigma also lowers theiraccess to resources and opportunities, such as housing and employment, and leadsto diminished self-esteem and greater isolation and hopelessness Penn & Martin, 1998; Corrigan& Penn, 1999. Stigma can also be against family members; this damagesthe consumer's self-esteem and family relationships (Wahl & Harman, 1989). In some Asian cultures,stigma is so extreme that mental illness is thought to reflect poorly on familylineage and thereby diminishes marriage and economic prospects for other familymembers as well Sue & Morishima,1982; Ng, 1997).

The last four decades have witnessed tremendous changes in mental health servicedelivery. The civil rights movement, the expansion of mental health servicesinto the community, and the demographic shift toward greater populationdiversity led to a growing awareness of inadequacies of the mental health systemin meeting the needs of ethnic and racial minorities Rogler et al., 1987; Takeuchi & Uehara, 1996. Research documented huge variationsin utilization between minorities and whites, and it began to uncover theinfluence of culture on mental health and mental illness Snowden & Cheung, 1990; Sue et al., 1991. Major differences were found in somemanifestations of mental disorders, idioms for communicating distress, andpatterns of help-seeking. The natural outgrowth of research and public awarenesswas self-examination by the mental health field and the advent of consumer andfamily advocacy. As noted in Chapter 1,major recognition was given to the importance of culture in the assessment ofmental illness with the publication of the "Outline for CultureFormulation" in DSM-IV (APA,1994).

South Africa faces numerous reproductive challenges that include high rates of unplanned and adolescent pregnancies. The uptake and utilization of family planning services and modern contraception methods depend on numerous factors. The male partner plays a key role in reproductive health but data on this topic are outdated or have a predominant HIV prevention focus. The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of male partners on family planning and contraceptive (FP/C) uptake and use within the contemporary South African setting, and to identify further areas of exploration.

We are fully aware of the difficulties confronting the public authorities in this matter, especially in the developing countries. In fact, We had in mind the justifiable anxieties which weigh upon them when We published Our encyclical letter Populorum Progressio. But now We join Our voice to that of Our predecessor John XXIII of venerable memory, and We make Our own his words: "No statement of the problem and no solution to it is acceptable which does violence to man's essential dignity; those who propose such solutions base them on an utterly materialistic conception of man himself and his life. The only possible solution to this question is one which envisages the social and economic progress both of individuals and of the whole of human society, and which respects and promotes true human values." (26) No one can, without being grossly unfair, make divine Providence responsible for what clearly seems to be the result of misguided governmental policies, of an insufficient sense of social justice, of a selfish accumulation of material goods, and finally of a culpable failure to undertake those initiatives and responsibilities which would raise the standard of living of peoples and their children. (27) If only all governments which were able would do what some are already doing so nobly, and bestir themselves to renew their efforts and their undertakings! There must be no relaxation in the programs of mutual aid between all the branches of the great human family. Here We believe an almost limitless field lies open for the activities of the great international institutions.

30. And now as We come to the end of this encyclical letter, We turn Our mind to you, reverently and lovingly, beloved and venerable brothers in the episcopate, with whom We share more closely the care of the spiritual good of the People of God. For We invite all of you, We implore you, to give a lead to your priests who assist you in the sacred ministry, and to the faithful of your dioceses, and to devote yourselves with all zeal and without delay to safeguarding the holiness of marriage, in order to guide married life to its full human and Christian perfection. Consider this mission as one of your most urgent responsibilities at the present time. As you well know, it calls for concerted pastoral action in every field of human diligence, economic, cultural and social. If simultaneous progress is made in these various fields, then the intimate life of parents and children in the family will be rendered not only more tolerable, but easier and more joyful. And life together in human society will be enriched with fraternal charity and made more stable with true peace when God's design which He conceived for the world is faithfully followed.

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Introduction to psychosocial and family development at all stages of the individual and family life cycle. Students may take only one course for General Education credit from SOC 30 or HDFS 129. HDFS 129 Introduction to Human Development and Family Studies (3) (GS)(BA) This course meets the Bachelor of Arts degree requirements. This course provides a basic introduction to the concepts, theories, and research on human development as it occurs over the life span and in context. Students will be introduced to developmental tasks and challenges unique to each stage of human development from the womb through infancy, early and middle childhood, adolescence, emerging adulthood, middle age and old age. Beginning with the prenatal state and infancy, students will be introduced to the biological, emotional, cognitive, psychosocial, as well as the social, cultural and historical factors that influence growth and development across infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and advanced adulthood. Students will be introduced to basic concepts, theoretical orientations, and key empirical studies that inform human growth and development. Furthermore, attention is given to the central role of families and family life as a context for development. The formation of intimate relationships, marriage, marital processes, motherhood and fatherhood will be reviewed, as well as problems and challenges that families face such as financial stress, separation and divorce, abuse, and caregiving. Finally how families and family behavior are influenced by their communities, the larger culture, and other social and economic forces will be discussed.

Concepts of affectional and sexual orientation over life span, with emphasis on lesbian and gay male personal, family, and community adaptation. HD FS (WMNST) 250 Sexual Identity over the Life Span (3) (US) This course reviews concepts of sexual identity as informed by a human development perspective. Concepts of sexual orientation are discussed in the context of a review of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual lives. Developmental processes of lesbian and gay life are detailed: personal change from the teenage years through adulthood, changes in family and relationship patterns, and impact of communities, laws, and culture. These processes are contrasted to the developmental processes of women and men who identify themselves as heterosexual. The complex effect of gender, race, ethnicity, class status, and historical time on sexual orientation and its expression has generated ongoing controversies in scholarship as well as in public discourse. The course will be an introduction to these controversies as informed by human development research.

The discipline of Human Development and Family Studies has a tradition of culturally sensitive engagement within communities, helping to improve quality of life by applying and disseminating knowledge about development across the lifespan, all in their larger social contexts. Issues of social justice and equity play an integral role in defining the questions that Human Development and Family Studies students ask and the solutions that they pursue, as students must account for diverse needs and values based on age, gender, ethnicity and cultural background. Students preparing to work in the field of Human Development and Family Studies must possess the content, pedagogical and professional knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary to work in diverse communities. HDFS 345 is an opportunity for students to explore the relationship between contemporary urban issues and family development. Participants will evaluate urban development from a Human Development perspective and with a critical eye to how urban development has accounted for the distinctive needs of different segments of the public. Therefore, HDFS 345 incorporates the knowledge of different Human Development and Family Studies theories and social justice paradigms to help students examine urban themes and build their understanding of social justice and family development as related to these themes. Students will learn how urban planning accounts for differences in society, identify different segments of the urban population differentiated by a few diversity constructs (culture, race, SES, gender, etc) and gain awareness of the varying and distinctive needs and concerns of these groups with respect to living in the urban environment. Students will also explore contemporary issues, like modern policing practices, and find resources to develop solutions to social issues or problems. Discussions of policy and moral philosophy will contribute to students' aptitude to plan an appropriate solution with tangible results. Ultimately, students are expected to leave the course with geographically-informed conceptualizations of social justice and insight into how individuals, families and organizations can work within urban communities as collaborators and partners.


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